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Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005 May;12(5):606-21.

Deoxycytidyl-deoxyguanosine oligonucleotide classes A, B, and C induce distinct cytokine gene expression patterns in rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells and distinct alpha interferon responses in TLR9-expressing rhesus monkey plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

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1
Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California--Davis, CA 95616, USA. kabel@ucdavis.edu

Abstract

To determine if deoxycytidyl-deoxyguanosine oligonucleotides (CpG ODN) can be used effectively as nonspecific inducers of innate immune defenses for preventative or therapeutic interventions in infectious disease models for nonhuman primates, the present study evaluated the response of rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells to three different synthetic CpG ODN classes by defining the cytokine gene expression patterns and by characterizing IFN-alpha/beta responses. Depending on the type and dose of CpG ODN used for stimulation, distinct gene expression patterns were induced. CpG ODN class A (CpG-A ODN) and CpG-C ODN, but not CpG-B ODN, were potent inducers of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha), and this response was due to IFN-alpha production by TLR9-positive plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Importantly, there was a dose-dependent increase in IFN-alpha responses to CpG-A ODN but a dose-dependent decrease in IFN-alpha responses by CpG-B ODN. The most sustained IFN-alpha response was induced by CpG-A ODN and was associated with a stronger induction of interferon regulatory factor 7 and the induction of several interferon-stimulated genes. In contrast, and independent of the dose, CpG-B ODN were the weakest inducers of IFN-alpha but the most potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokines. CpG-C ODN induced cytokine gene expression patterns that were intermediate between those of CpG-A and CpG-B ODN. Thus, the different types of CpG ODN induce different post-TLR9 signaling pathways that result in distinct cytokine gene expression patterns. Based on these findings, A and C class CpG ODN, but not B class CpG ODN, may be particularly suited for use as therapeutic or prophylactic antiviral interventions.

PMID:
15879022
PMCID:
PMC1112080
DOI:
10.1128/CDLI.12.5.606-621.2005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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