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Clin Transplant. 2005 Jun;19(3):423-6.

Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (Rituximab) for life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

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1
Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University at Buffalo School of Medicine, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Abstract

Rituximab is a chimaeric monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen. It has been successfully used in B-cell malignancy and its efficacy in the treatment of in autoimmune hemolytic anemia and other autoimmune diseases is being investigated. There are also few case reports of its success in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, but no reports of its use in hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). We report a 36-year-old patient who had lost the function of her native kidneys secondary to HUS. After more than 1 year in clinical remission, she received a living unrelated kidney transplant. This immediately precipitated a severe relapse of HUS. The process was abrogated but not completely inactivated, despite over 40 plasma exchange treatments. Consequently, she was given Rituximab in courses of two to three doses, each dose 375 mg/m(2), at weekly intervals with remarkable stabilization of her disease for approximately 6 months.

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