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Cell Cycle. 2005 Apr;4(4):529-32. Epub 2005 Apr 10.

Evidence that DNA damage detection machinery participates in DNA repair.

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  • 1Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.


The toroidal Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 checkpoint complex (9-1-1) is structurally similar to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which serves as a sliding clamp platform for DNA replication and repair. 9-1-1 has been characterized as a sensor of DNA damage that functions in concert with the checkpoint control proteins ATM and ATR. However, recent data suggest that the 9-1-1 complex and its individual Rad9 component serve different and multiple functions in cells by sensing DNA damage, stimulating apoptosis, and regulating gene transcription. Recently it was reported that 9-1-1 interacts with and/or stimulates components of the base excision repair (BER) pathway including the S. pombe MutY homolog (MYH), human polymerase beta (Polbeta), and flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1). Furthermore, preliminary results indicate a stimulation of DNA ligase I. In this review, the likely direct participation of 9-1-1 in DNA repair is discussed.

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