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Carcinogenesis. 1992 May;13(5):901-4.

Inhibitory effects of diallyl sulfide on the metabolism and tumorigenicity of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in A/J mouse lung.

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Laboratory for Cancer Research, College of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0789.


Diallyl sulfide (DAS), a component of garlic oil, has been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis by several chemical carcinogens. Our previous work demonstrated that DAS inhibited the metabolic activation of carcinogenic nitrosamines, including the tobacco-specific 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), in rat lung and nasal mucosa microsomes. In the present study, the effects of DAS on the tumorigenicity and the metabolism of NNK in A/J mouse lung were examined. Female A/J mice at 7 weeks of age were pretreated with DAS (200 mg/kg body wt in corn oil, p.o) daily for 3 days. Two hours after the final DAS treatment, the mice were either given a single dose of NNK (2 mg/mouse, i.p.) and kept for an additional 16 weeks for determining the production of pulmonary tumors, or were killed immediately so as to measure the microsomal activity in metabolizing NNK. In comparison to the vehicle control group, DAS pretreatment significantly decreased the incidence of NNK-induced lung tumors (37.9 versus 100%) and the tumor multiplicity (0.6 versus 7.2 tumors/mouse). In pulmonary metabolism of NNK, DAS pretreatment reduced the rates of formation of keto aldehyde, keto alcohol, NNAL-N-oxide, and NNK-N-oxide by 70-90%. In addition, the formation of NNK oxidative metabolites from NNK in the liver microsomes from DAS-pretreated mice was remarkably reduced. DAS also inhibited the metabolism of NNK in mouse lung microsomes in vitro. These results demonstrate that DAS is an effective chemopreventive agent against NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis, probably by inhibiting the metabolic activation of NNK.

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