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J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2005 Apr;19(2):201-8.

Intraoperative glucose control in diabetic and nondiabetic patients during cardiac surgery.

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1
Department of Anesthesiology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44109, USA. csmith@metrohealth.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate intraoperative glucose control.

DESIGN:

Prospective unblinded study.

SETTING:

Tertiary care center.

PARTICIPANTS:

Diabetic (n = 17) and nondiabetic (n = 23) patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery.

INTERVENTIONS:

Diabetics received a modified insulin regimen consisting of a fixed rate infusion of regular insulin, 10 U/m2/h, and a variable infusion of D10W, adjusted to maintain glucose between 101 to 140 mg/dL.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

Baseline glucose was higher in diabetics versus nondiabetics (mean +/- standard error of the mean: 203 +/- 27 v 117 +/- 3 mg/dL, p < 0.005). After baseline, insulin levels were increased in diabetics to 410 to 568 microU/mL. Corresponding insulin levels in nondiabetics were 12 to 40 microU/mL. Compared with baseline, glucose was decreased by 10% +/- 29% in diabetics during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and increased by 21% +/- 30% in nondiabetics (p < 0.005). After discontinuation of bypass, glucose was lower in diabetics (137 +/- 12 mg/dL) versus nondiabetics (162 +/- 8 mg/dL, p < 0.005). Nine diabetics had adequate intraoperative glycemic control during hypothermic bypass (glucose 123 +/- 8 mg/dL, insulin 550 +/- 68 microU/mL, glucose infusion rate 1.87 +/- 0.29 mg/kg/min), 6 approached adequate control near the end of surgery (glucose 147 +/- 8 mg/dL, insulin 483 +/- 86 microU/mL, glucose infusion rate 0.35 +/- 0.05 mg/kg/min), and 2 never achieved control. Diabetics with elevated initial glucose >300 mg/dL did not achieve adequate glycemic control. Four diabetics (3 with renal failure) required injection of 50% dextrose after bypass for hypoglycemia.

CONCLUSION:

Adequate glycemic control can be achieved in most diabetics during cardiac surgery using a modified insulin clamp technique provided initial glucose is <300 mg/dL.

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PMID:
15868529
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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