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Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol. 1992 Mar;6(1):43-57.

Advances in the surgical management of anal incontinence.


The standard treatments for traumatic and idiopathic faecal incontinence have for the last 10-15 years been sphincter reconstruction and pelvic floor repair, respectively. Results of the treatment of traumatic sphincter lesions have in general been satisfactory, whereas the results after prolonged follow-up of pelvic floor repair for idiopathic anal incontinence seem less convincing. Incontinence due to neurological disorders cannot always be treated by local procedures on the anal sphincter or pelvic floor. This has led to the investigation of a number of other surgical procedures with the aim of re-establishing faecal continence. These include transposition of striated muscles, primarily the gracilis and gluteus maximus, implantation of neuromuscular stimulators, implantation of artificial sphincters and implantation of neuroprosthesis. These new techniques, which are also applicable in patients with traumatic and idiopathic anal incontinence where local reconstructive procedures have failed, are reviewed in this chapter in the light of our present state of knowledge.

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