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J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 20;23(18):4162-71. Epub 2005 May 2.

Phase I study of the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of PTK787/ZK 222584 administered twice daily in patients with advanced cancer.

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  • 1University of Leicester, United Kingdom.



PTK787/ZK 222584 (PTK/ZK) is an oral angiogenesis inhibitor targeting all known vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinases, including VEGFR-1/Flt-1, VEGFR-2/KDR, VEGFR-3/Flt-4, the platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, and the c-kit protein tyrosine kinase. In this phase I dose-escalating study, PTK/ZK was administered bid to exploit the theoretical advantage of maintaining constant drug levels above a threshold known from preclinical data to interfere with VEGF receptor signaling.


Forty-three patients with advanced cancers received single-agent PTK/ZK at doses of 150 to 1,000 mg orally bid. Assessments for safety and pharmacokinetics were performed. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was used as a pharmacodynamic marker of response.


At 1,000 mg bid, the dose-limiting toxicity of reversible grade 3 lightheadedness was observed. Dose-related grade 3 fatigue and vomiting were observed but these were not dose-limiting. Pharmacokinetic data confirmed that PTK/ZK exposure increased with increasing dose up to 500 mg bid and appeared to plateau at higher doses. A greater than 40% reduction in the DCE-MRI bidirectional transfer constant (K(i)) at day 2 predicted for nonprogression of disease.


The maximum-tolerated oral dose of PTK/ZK is 750 mg orally bid. DCE-MRI and pharmacokinetic data indicate that PTK/ZK >/= 1,000 mg total daily dose is the biologically active dose.

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