Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Endourol. 2005 Apr;19(3):312-7.

What happens to hemostatic agents in contact with urine? An in vitro study.

Author information

  • 1Department of Urology, University of California-Irvine Medical Center, 101 The City Drive, Orange, CA 92868, USA.



As the indications for topical hemostatic agents increase in urology, the question arises: what happens to these agents when they enter the urinary collecting system? To answer this question, we performed a series of in-vitro experiments mixing three hemostatic agents with normal and sanguineous urine.


Four commercially available topical hemostatic products: oxidized regenerated cellulose (Surgicel; Ethicon, Somerville, NJ), fibrin sealant (Tisseel VH Kit; Baxter Health Care Corporation, Irvine, CA), gelatin matrix hemostatic sealant (FloSeal; Baxter Health Care), and polyethylene glycol (CoSeal; Cohesion Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) were studied. Human urine (10 mL) was added to samples of each substance; this was done in triplicate. The 12 sample tubes were then capped and placed on a tube shaker at slow speed and 37 degrees C. Observations regarding consistency of the material were made at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours (5 days). Gelatin matrix hemostatic sealant was further tested in urine with various amounts of blood or blood clot; observations were again recorded out to 5 days.


Surgicel maintained its solid form when it initially came in contact with urine, but over a period of 5 days, it transformed into a mucoid substance with visible free-floating fibers. It did not dissolve completely in urine within 5 days. Gelatin matrix was immediately transformed by urine into a fine colloidal suspension that did not change over the 5 days of the study. Fibrin glue, after mixing of the two components (fibrinogen and thrombin) directly in the urine, and polyethylene glycol immediately formed a solid clot at the bottom of the test tube on contact with the urine. When the mixture of fibrin sealant was allowed to form for 15 minutes and then added to urine, it again maintained a solid form. After 72 hours, the fibrin glue became a semisolid gelatinous plug. On analysis at 5 days, the fibrin sealant clot had transformed into a cohesive mucoid gel, and the polyethylene glycol clot had not changed. The gelatin matrix hemostatic sealant, when in contact with blood or blood clot, appeared to either become part of a clot or to remain in a colloidal suspension. At 5 days, all clots had dissolved to fine particulate suspensions, and the gelatin matrix appeared as a fine suspension.


Fibrin glue and oxidized regenerated cellulose maintain a solid form when initially placed in direct contact with urine and then assume a semisolid gelatinous state, which is still present at 5 days. Polyethylene glycol forms a solid clot initially and does not change after 5 days. Only hemostatic gelatin matrix remained as a fine particulate suspension in both normal and sanguineous urine. The implications of these findings with regard to sealing the renal parenchyma or small violations of the collecting system after percutaneous or laparoscopic surgery await in-vivo testing.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk