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Klin Padiatr. 2005 May-Jun;217(3):126-34.

Immunophenotype of Down syndrome acute myeloid leukemia and transient myeloproliferative disease differs significantly from other diseases with morphologically identical or similar blasts.

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1
University Children's Hospital Muenster, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, 48129 Muenster. langebra@uni-muenster.de

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Children with Down Syndrome (DS) have a 20-40 fold increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML), mainly of the megakaryoblastic subtype (AMKL). Approximately 10 % of newborns with DS show transient myeloproliferative disease (TMD) which normally resolves spontaneously. The blast cells of both entities show megakaryoblastic/erythroblastic features (M7/M6) and cannot be distinguished by morphological characteristics.

DESIGN AND METHODS:

Blast cells of 62 children were analyzed by four-color flow cytometry and dual color fluorescence microscopy.

RESULTS:

The immunophenotype of blast cells from children with TMD and DS-AMKL is characterized by the expression of CD33 (+)/CD13 (+/-)/CD38 (+)/CD117 (+)/CD34 (+/-)/CD7 (+)/CD56 (+/-)/CD36 (+)/CD71 (+)/CD42b (+)/CD4dim (+)/TPO-R (+)/EPO-R (-)/IL-3-Ralpha (+)/IL-6-Ralpha (-). Non-DS children with morphologically related diseases, i. e. myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), or AML-M6 and AML-M7, did not show this expression profile. CD34 expression was observed in 93 % of TMD, but only 50 % of DS-AMKL patients. The blast cells of all TMD and DS-AMKL cases were positive for TPO-R and IL-3R, whereas EPO-R and IL-6R were absent.

CONCLUSIONS:

Immunophenotyping by the use of surface antigens and growth factor receptors is a useful tool to discriminate TMD and DS-AMKL from diseases with morphologically similar or identical blasts. The absence of EPO-R on the blast cells might be a sign of the high expression of the mutated -- and less active -- GATA1 in DS. The higher amount of CD34 co-expression in TMD may be interpreted to indicate that TMD is a slightly more immature disease than DS-AMKL.

PMID:
15858703
DOI:
10.1055/s-2005-836510
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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