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Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005 May;28(3):197-212.

GIS-facilitated spatial epidemiology of tick-borne diseases in coyotes (Canis latrans) in northern and coastal California.

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Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.


Ixodes pacificus is the main tick vector for transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi to large vertebrates in California. The present study was undertaken in I. pacificus-infested counties in California to examine spatial and temporal relationships among A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi-exposed coyotes with vegetation type and climate. The overall A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi seroprevalences were 39.5% (N=215) and 18.9% (N=148), respectively, with no association with sex. PCR for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi was negative in all blood and kidney samples. Increased seroprevalence was a positive function of rainfall. Ehrlichial seropositivity was increased in blue-oak foothill pine, montane hardwood, and redwood vegetation regions, and decreased in coastal sagebrush and cropland. Increased exposure to B. burgdorferi occurred in blue oak woodland.

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