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Pediatr Nephrol. 2005 Jul;20(7):1003-6. Epub 2005 Apr 26.

Hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis: case report and a family study.

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University Children's Hospital, 17 Vodnjanska, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia.


A 7-month-old male infant was referred for investigation after a documented febrile urinary tract infection. His past medical history was characterized by episodes of unexplained fever and mild dehydration. The ultrasound examination of his kidneys demonstrated bilateral diffuse medullary nephrocalcinosis. His serum and urine biochemistry revealed hypomagnesemia (0.4 mmol/l), hyperuricaemia (506 micromol/l), mildly increased iPTH (71 pg/ml) and hypercalciuria (16.0 mg/kg/day). The diagnosis of familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) was confirmed by mutational analysis of the CLDN16 gene, encoding paracellin-1. Sequencing displayed a homozygous Leu151Phe exchange affecting the first extracellular loop of paracellin-1. There were eight family relatives who underwent biochemical analysis, renal ultrasound and genetic investigation for CLDN16 mutations. Five of them were found to be heterozygous for the Leu151Phe mutation. Two heterozygotes (the mother and the maternal grandfather) presented with hypercalciuria. The grandfather had a history of recurrent passage of calculi. These findings point to the role of heterozygous CLDN16 gene mutations in renal pathophysiology. In conclusion, patients suspected of having FHHNC should be screened for CLDN16 mutations, especially with respect to genetic counseling. In addition, heterozygotes at risk should be clinically assessed in order to prevent renal complications of hypercalciuria.

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