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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 May;49(5):1770-4.

Biphasic effects of geranylgeraniol, teprenone, and phytol on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus.

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Department of Microbiology, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543, Japan.


We examined the antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus of three diterpenes, namely, geranylgeraniol, teprenone, and phytol, by using a broth dilution with shaking method to identify the effects of diterpenes with long aliphatic carbon chains. We also performed time-kill assays and measured the leakage of K(+) ions from bacterial cells in response to these diterpenes. The diterpenes used inhibited the growth of S. aureus at concentrations of 0.15 microg/ml, as determined by damage to the cell membranes, and had clear bactericidal activity. However, the inhibitory effects of the diterpenes decreased when the concentration of each was raised above a certain level. The diterpenes tested in this study appeared to have both growth-inhibitory and growth-accelerating effects, and the net effect of each depended on its concentration.

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