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Diabetes. 2005 May;54(5):1349-56.

Akt2 is essential for the full effect of calorie restriction on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

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Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.


Brief calorie restriction (CR; 20 days of 60% of ad libitum [AL] intake) improves insulin-stimulated glucose transport, concomitant with enhanced phosphorylation of Akt2. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Akt2 is essential for the calorie restriction-induced enhancement in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. We measured insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) uptake in isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles from male and female wild-type (WT) and Akt2-null (knockout [KO]) mice after ad libitum or calorie-restricted (20 days at 60% of AL) feeding. In WT mice, calorie restriction significantly enhanced insulin-stimulated 2DG uptake in both muscles regardless of sex. However, in KO mice, calorie restriction did not enhance insulin-stimulated 2DG in male or female EDL or in female soleus. Only in male KO soleus did calorie restriction significantly increase insulin-stimulated 2DG through an Akt2-independent mechanism, although 2DG uptake of the KO-CR group was reduced compared with the WT-CR soleus group. Akt2 serine phosphorylation was enhanced approximately two- to threefold in insulin-stimulated WT-CR versus WT-AL muscles. Calorie restriction induced an approximately 1.5- to 2-fold elevation in Akt1 phosphorylation of insulin-treated muscles, regardless of genotype, but this increase was insufficient to replace Akt2 for insulin-stimulated 2DG in Akt2-deficient muscles. These results indicate that Akt2 is essential for the full effect of brief calorie restriction on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle with physiologic insulin.

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