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J Invest Dermatol. 2005 May;124(5):1026-33.

Regulation of the expression of peptidylarginine deiminase type II gene (PADI2) in human keratinocytes involves Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors.

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Department of Applied Biological Resource Sciences, School of Agriculture, Ibaraki University, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki, Japan.


Peptidylarginine deiminases (PAD) convert protein-bound arginine residues into citrulline residues in a Ca(2+) ion-dependent manner. Among the five isoforms (PAD1, 2, 3, 4, and 6) existing in rodents and humans, PAD2 is the most widely expressed in both species, tissues, and organs. In order to study the mechanisms regulating the expression of the human PAD2 gene, PADI2, we characterized its promoter region using transfected human keratinocytes. A series of reporter gene constructions derived from the 2 kb region upstream of the transcription initiation site defined a minimal promoter sequence from nucleotides -132 to -41. This PADI2 region is GC-rich and lacks canonical TATA and CAAT boxes. Investigation of cis-acting elements in the region, further deletion analyses and electrophoretic mobility shift assays using specific antibodies revealed four Sp1-binding sites and identified Sp1 and Sp3 as binding factors important for the promoter activity. These results suggest that Sp1/Sp3 cooperation may provide a mechanism to control the transcription of PADI2.

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