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J Pediatr Surg. 2005 Apr;40(4):666-9.

Reflux in esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal cleft, and esophagocoloplasty: Bianchi's procedure as an alternative approach.

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Department of Paediatric Surgery, Hôpital Robert Debré, 75019 Paris, France. <>



Fundoplication has been used successfully to treat gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in the pediatric population. Although successful in many patients, there is a significant risk of complications and failure, especially in high-risk patients such as those with certain types of associated anomalies, diffuse motility disorders, chronic pulmonary disease, neurological impairment, and young infants. However, the results are poorer with children with severe pathologic lesion associated to reflux: tracheoesophageal cleft, esophagocoloplasty, and esophageal atresia (EA) with severe dysmotricity. In neurologically impaired children with neuromuscular incoordination and GER, Bianchi has proposed total esophagogastric dissociation (TED). The authors report the use of esophagogastric or esocologastric dissociation to control reflux in children with severe GER in other situations, such as EA, burn esophageal lesions having led to coloplasty and severe esotracheal cleft.


The authors reviewed the patients operated on for an esogastric or cologastric disconnection between 1997 and 2002. It is a single center retrospective study. The initial diagnosis, previous surgical procedure, postoperative course, and follow-up results were studied.


Between September 1999 and June 2003, 13 TEDs were performed in 6 boys and 7 girls. The mean age for TED procedure was 35 months (range 14 days to 218 months). Indication for TED was severe persistent reflux in, respectively, 9 cases of EA (7 with coloplasty and 2 with preservation of the native esophagus after atresia repair, associated in 1 case with an esotracheal cleft), 2 cases of esotracheal cleft type III, and 2 cases of esophagocoloplasty for caustic burns. Six patients had undergone previous fundoplications (1-4 procedures) that failed, whereas the remaining patients underwent TED as the primary antireflux procedure. The average follow-up was 26 months (range 1 month to 4 years). There were no complication during the immediate postoperative course. Three children died at 3, 4, and 12 months after the procedure from acute respiratory failure. Respiratory status was improved in 8 children, and recurrent bronchitis was noted in 1 child. Regarding the digestive status, gastrostomy was closed at 18 and 24 months in 2 children, and partial nocturnal enteral nutrition (200 to 900 mL/d) through the gastrostomy remains necessary in the other children.


Total esophagogastric dissociation procedure improves the respiratory consequences of severe GER, particularly in children for whom other surgical treatments have failed. The long-term safety of this operation remains to be determined especially regarding the consequences of a gastrointestinal Roux-en-Y loop procedure.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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