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Hypertension. 2005 Jun;45(6):1119-24. Epub 2005 Apr 25.

Control of hypertension in adults with chronic kidney disease in the United States.

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  • 1General Internal Medicine, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, California, USA.


Although improved control of hypertension is known to attenuate progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), little is known about the adequacy of hypertension treatment in adults with CKD in the United States. Using data from the Fourth National Health and Nutrition Survey, we assessed adherence to national hypertension guideline targets for patients with CKD (blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg), we assessed control of systolic (<130 mm Hg) and diastolic (<80 mm Hg) blood pressure, and we evaluated determinants of adequate blood pressure control. Presence of CKD was defined as glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or presence of albuminuria (albumin:creatinine ratio >30 microg/mg). Multivariable logistic regression with appropriate weights was used to determine predictors of inadequate hypertension control and related outcomes. Among 3213 participants with CKD, 37% had blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI], 34.5% to 41.8%). Of those with inadequate blood pressure control, 59% (95% CI, 54% to 64%) had systolic >130 mm Hg, with diastolic < or =80 mm Hg, whereas only 7% (95% CI, 3.9 to 9.8%) had a diastolic pressure >80 mm Hg, with systolic blood pressure < or =130 mm Hg. Non-Hispanic black race (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.9), age >75 years (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.7 to 8.2), and albuminuria (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.1) were independently associated with inadequate blood pressure control. We conclude that control of hypertension is poor in participants with CKD and that lack of control is primarily attributable to systolic hypertension. Future guidelines and antihypertensive therapies for patients with CKD should target isolated systolic hypertension.

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