Send to

Choose Destination
Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2005 Jun;141(2):179-89. Epub 2005 Mar 23.

A role for poly(dA)poly(dT) tracts in directing activity of the Plasmodium falciparum calmodulin gene promoter.

Author information

Division of Parasitology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK.


Expression of the Plasmodium falciparum calmodulin gene (pfcam) is developmentally regulated throughout the blood-stage cycle. The promoter lies within approximately 1 kb of intergenic sequence that separates the pfcam open reading frame (ORF) from an upstream inverted ORF encoding a product homologous to the co-chaperone STI1. Using the oligo-capping method, which selectively reverse-transcribes cDNA from only full-length, capped transcript, we have mapped multiple transcription-initiation sites for both genes. Transcription of the pfSTI1 gene initiates over a 150 bp region centred approximately 350 bp upstream of the ORF. The pfcam transcription start sites cluster into four approximately 30 bp regions lying within 180 bp upstream of the pfcam ORF, generating transcripts with 5' untranslated regions (UTR) of 3-173 nucleotides in length. Remarkably, splicing was found to be related to UTR length, with apparent preferential splicing of longer transcripts. Activity of the pfcam promoter diminished in a linear fashion to undetectable levels upon step-wise removal of sequence between 625 and 230 bp upstream of the start ATG. Electromobility-shift assays demonstrated nuclear factor binding to eight oligonucleotide probes spanning 657 bp of the pfcam ORF proximal upstream sequence. The degree of binding correlated with the density of poly(dA)poly(dT) tracts within the probes, and in all cases could be inhibited by excess synthetic poly(dA)poly(dT), but not by poly(dAdT)poly(dAdT). The multiple transcription-initiation sites of both pfSTI1 and pfcam genes lie just downstream of 25 bp-long poly(dA)poly(dT) tracts, and the intergenic region contains over 20 poly(dA)poly(dT) tracts of 4 bp or more. Our results suggest that the basal pfcam promoter is situated between approximately -300 and -230 bp upstream of the pfcam ORF and that the P. falciparum transcription-initiation complex has a low degree of sequence-specificity for the sites of initiation but preferentially acts downstream of long poly(dA)poly(dT) tracts.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center