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Thromb Res. 2005;116(1):1-13.

Short-term effects of estrogen, tamoxifen and raloxifene on hemostasis: a randomized-controlled study and review of the literature.

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Clinical Research/Regional Bone Centers, Helen Hayes Hospital, West Haverstraw, NY 10993, USA.



Estrogen therapy (ET), tamoxifen and raloxifene are associated with a two- to three-fold increased risk of venous thrombosis (VT); however, the mechanisms by which each drug increases venous thrombosis propensity are not fully understood. The objectives of this investigation were to compare the effects of these three treatments on hemostasis in a head to head randomized placebo-controlled trial.


Ninety-four postmenopausal women were assigned to receive oral estrogen (conjugated equine estrogen [CEE] 0.625 mg, n=23), tamoxifen 20 mg (n=24), raloxifene 60 mg (n=24) or placebo (n=23) daily for 6 months. Blood samples were analyzed for procoagulant factors (prothrombin, factors VII [fVII], VIII [fVIII], IX [fIX] and XI [fXI], D-dimer and von Willebrand factor [vWf]), anticoagulant factors (antithrombin [AT], total and free protein S, protein C and activated protein C [APC] resistance) and fibrinolytic factors (thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor [TAFI] and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]), at baseline and at 6 months of treatment.


Estrogen increased factor VII and D-dimer, and decreased antithrombin, total and free protein S and PAI-1. Changes with tamoxifen were distinct from estrogen with increases in factors VIII, IX, vWf and free protein S, and decreases in AT, total protein S, protein C and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Raloxifene produced similar effects as tamoxifen, but did not increase factor IX or decrease protein C.


Estrogen, tamoxifen and raloxifene affected hemostasis favoring procoagulation and impairing anticoagulation. The biochemical effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were distinct from those of estrogen and differed only subtly from each other.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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