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J Biol Chem. 2005 Jun 17;280(24):23173-83. Epub 2005 Apr 22.

Phosphorylation of Ser24 in the pleckstrin homology domain of insulin receptor substrate-1 by Mouse Pelle-like kinase/interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase: cross-talk between inflammatory signaling and insulin signaling that may contribute to insulin resistance.

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  • 1Diabetes Unit, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.


Inflammation contributes to insulin resistance in diabetes and obesity. Mouse Pelle-like kinase (mPLK, homolog of human IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)) participates in inflammatory signaling. We evaluated IRS-1 as a novel substrate for mPLK that may contribute to linking inflammation with insulin resistance. Wild-type mPLK, but not a kinase-inactive mutant (mPLK-KD), directly phosphorylated full-length IRS-1 in vitro. This in vitro phosphorylation was increased when mPLK was immunoprecipitated from tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-treated cells. In NIH-3T3(IR) cells, wild-type mPLK (but not mPLK-KD) co-immunoprecipitated with IRS-1. This association was increased by treatment of cells with TNF-alpha. Using mass spectrometry, we identified Ser(24) in the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of IRS-1 as a specific phosphorylation site for mPLK. IRS-1 mutants S24D or S24E (mimicking phosphorylation at Ser(24)) had impaired ability to associate with insulin receptors resulting in diminished tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and impaired ability of IRS-1 to bind and activate PI-3 kinase in response to insulin. IRS-1-S24D also had an impaired ability to mediate insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 in rat adipose cells. Importantly, endogenous mPLK/IRAK was activated in response to TNF-alpha or interleukin 1 treatment of primary adipose cells. In addition, using a phospho-specific antibody against IRS-1 phosphorylated at Ser(24), we found that interleukin-1 or TNF-alpha treatment of Fao cells stimulated increased phosphorylation of endogenous IRS-1 at Ser(24). We conclude that IRS-1 is a novel physiological substrate for mPLK. TNF-alpha-regulated phosphorylation at Ser(24) in the pleckstrin homology domain of IRS-1 by mPLK/IRAK represents an additional mechanism for cross-talk between inflammatory signaling and insulin signaling that may contribute to metabolic insulin resistance.

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