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Transplant Proc. 2005 Mar;37(2):923-6.

Reversal of acute cellular rejection after renal transplantation with Campath-1H.

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University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.


Between September 2002 and February 2004, 40 kidney transplant (27 from deceased and 13 from living donors) recipients (25 male and 15 female, aged 50.3 +/- 15.1 years) were treated with Campath 1H (C 1H; 30 mg/dose IV) for biopsy-proven steroid-resistant rejection (SRR) or rejections equal to or worse than Banff 1B. All transplantations occurred between August 2001 and May 2003. All patients had received antibody preconditioning (RATG 5 mg/kg, n = 34; C 1H 60 mg, n = 4; C 1H 30 mg, n = 2) preoperatively and were treated with Tacrolimus monotherapy (target level 10 ng/ml) postoperatively and subsequent spaced weaning. Elevated creatinine levels at follow-up were evaluated by renal transplant biopsy. Rejection was treated with steroids, reversal of weaning, addition of sirolimus, and/or antibody treatment, depending on grade of rejection. The mean duration of follow-up was 453 +/- 163 days after C 1H administration. Twenty-nine patients received C 1H for SRR and 11 patients for Banff 1B or worse rejections; 26 patients received more than 1 dose of C 1H. Graft survival was 62.5% (25 patients); 6 of the 15 allografts (40%) that failed had presented with rejections because of noncompliance. Graft survival in compliant patients with SRR or rejections equal to or worse than Banff 1B was 73.5% (25 of 34). Fourteen patients (35%) had infectious complications, of whom 2 patients (5%) died. C 1H is an effective agent for SRR and Banff 1B or worse rejections, with 95% patient survival and 73.5% graft survival (in compliant patients). The number of doses of 30 mg C 1H should be restricted to two, as there is a high incidence of potentially fatal infectious complications.

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