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J Pathol. 2005 Jun;206(2):170-7.

Evidence for lymphangiogenesis and its prognostic implications in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

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Department of Pathology, University of Ioannina, Medical School, Ioannina, Greece.


Lymph node metastasis is a frequent reason for adverse clinical outcome in many epithelial neoplasms, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The mechanisms underlying the capability of epithelial neoplasms to metastasize via lymphatic vessels have not yet been fully elucidated. There is great debate about whether cancer cells can metastasize by expansion and invasion of pre-existing peritumoral lymphatics or by the formation and invasion of new lymphatics within tumours (lymphangiogenesis). In order to investigate this issue, we examined 81 tissue specimens from patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, using immunostaining for the specific lymphatic endothelium marker podoplanin, and assessed intratumoral and peritumoral lymphatic density. We also quantified lymphatic invasion and examined the possible associations of all the above parameters with clinicopathological features and outcome. Finally, we used double staining with podoplanin and the cell proliferation marker Ki-67 in order to evaluate lymphangiogenesis. High intratumoral and peritumoral lymphatic density were both significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis (chi2 test, p < 0.001 and p = 0.007, respectively) and there was a significant correlation between high intratumoral lymphatic density and lymphatic invasion. Patients with higher intratumoral lymphatic density exhibited shorter overall survival (log rank p < 0.001) and this correlation remained significant after multivariate analysis (Cox p = 0.04), indicating that intratumoral lymphatic density is an independent prognostic factor for mortality. Peritumoral lymphatic density had no influence on outcome. Double staining revealed the existence of proliferating intratumoral lymphatics, in which tumour emboli were occasionally observed. These results indicate that lymphangiogenesis indeed occurs in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; that newly formed vessels are targets of invasion by cancer cells; and that intratumoral lymphatic density might be used as a criterion to separate patients at higher risk of an adverse clinical outcome.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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