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Adolesc Med Clin. 2005 Feb;16(1):87-109.

Urolithiasis in adolescent children.

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Section of Nephrology, The Children's Mercy Hospital, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.


Idiopathic urolithiasis in children has become more frequent in the past few decades as a result of increasing affluence and rapid change in our society's dietary habits. In Western societies, calcium stones in the kidney and ureter predominate. Pediatric urolithiases, unlike the adult form, require a comprehensive metabolic evaluation, because metabolic and enzymatic derangements play an important role in their pathogenesis. The recent advancements in endoscopic procedures, interventional radiology, and lithotripsy have allowed children to be managed effectively without open surgery. Pediatric urolithiasis requires a close working relationship between the urologist for acute surgical management of urolithiasis and the nephrologists for prevention of stone formation. In many children and adolescents with urolithiasis, a nonpharmacologic approach involving the adoption of healthy nutrition habits may suffice.

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