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J Biomech. 2005 May;38(5):981-992.

ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate systems of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion--Part II: shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand.

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Department of Physical Therapy, University of Vermont, 305 Rathwell Building, Burlington, VT, USA.


In this communication, the Standardization and Terminology Committee (STC) of the International Society of Biomechanics proposes a definition of a joint coordinate system (JCS) for the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hand. For each joint, a standard for the local axis system in each articulating segment or bone is generated. These axes then standardize the JCS. The STC is publishing these recommendations so as to encourage their use, to stimulate feedback and discussion, and to facilitate further revisions. Adopting these standards will lead to better communication among researchers and clinicians.

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