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Nat Immunol. 2005 May;6(5):439-45.

Interactions of NF-kappaB with chromatin: the art of being at the right place at the right time.

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Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Via Vincenzo Vela 6, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. <>


Transcription factors of the NF-kappaB family are essential regulators of the inflammatory and immune responses. The main 'switch' in NF-kappaB activation is cytoplasmic and leads to the release of NF-kappaB proteins from IkappaB molecules, specific inhibitors that prevent their nuclear accumulation. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that in addition to this required activation step, both recruitment of NF-kappaB to target genes and NF-kappaB-induced transcriptional events after recruitment are actively controlled. Regulated recruitment of NF-kappaB to chromatin generates kinetic complexity in NF-kappaB-dependent gene induction and 'wires' NF-kappaB-regulated gene activity to simultaneously activated pathways and transcription factors.

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