Send to

Choose Destination
J Environ Qual. 2005 Apr 20;34(3):861-71. Print 2005 May-Jun.

Persistence of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol in soils receiving swine manure or municipal biosolids.

Author information

Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2 Universitetsparken, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.


Natural and synthetic steroidal hormones can be carried to agricultural soil through fertilization with municipal biosolids, livestock manure, or poultry manure. The persistence and pathways of dissipation of [4-(14)C]-testosterone and of [4-(14)C]-17beta-estradiol in organic-amended soils were investigated using laboratory microcosms. Testosterone dissipation was investigated over a range of amendment concentrations, temperatures, and soil types. Under all conditions the parent compound and transformation products were dissipated within a few days. Addition of swine manure slurry to soil hastened the transformation of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol to the corresponding less hormonally active ketones, 4-androstene-3,17-dione and estrone. Two other testosterone transformation products, 5alpha-androstan-3,17-dione and 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione, were also detected. Experiments with sterilized soil and sterilized swine manure slurry suggested that the transformation of (14)C-labeled hormonal parent compounds was mainly caused by microorganisms in manure slurry, while mineralization of the hormones to (14)CO(2) required viable soil microorganisms. Organic amendments transiently inhibited the mineralization of [4-(14)C]-testosterone, perhaps by inhibiting soil microorganisms, or by enhancing sorption and reducing the bioavailability of testosterone or transformation products. Overall, organic amendments influenced the pathways and kinetics of testosterone and estradiol dissipation, but did not increase their persistence.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Science Societies
Loading ...
Support Center