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Arch Virol. 2005 Aug;150(8):1493-504. Epub 2005 Apr 21.

Investigation into the causes of canine infectious respiratory disease: antibody responses to canine respiratory coronavirus and canine herpesvirus in two kennelled dog populations.

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Department of Pathology and Infectious Diseases, The Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, U.K.


Two training centres for working dogs were monitored for one year to determine the presence of viruses and viral antibodies and their association with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD). Tonsillar swabs and serum were obtained from dogs on entry into the kennels and in regular intervals thereafter. Additional samples were collected during outbreaks of CIRD. The swabs were examined by virus culture and PCR for canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus, canine herpesvirus (CHV) and canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV). Furthermore the prevalence of antibodies to CHV and CRCoV was determined. During this study CIRD was reported mainly in one of the two kennels investigated. In that kennel antibody responses to CRCoV indicated a seasonal occurrence of the virus, which coincided with two outbreaks of respiratory disease. CHV antibody responses were detected throughout the year. In the other kennel, which reported few cases of CIRD a high prevalence of antibodies to CRCoV was detected on entry but only sporadic seroconversions to CRCoV or CHV. By PCR three dogs were found positive for CRCoV in one kennel whereas all PCR tests for other viruses were negative for both kennels. Virus culture failed to detect any viruses in either kennel.

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