Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Contemp Clin Trials. 2005 Feb;26(1):17-24. Epub 2005 Jan 27.

Rationale and design of the DIRECT study: a comparative assessment of the hyperglycemic effects of tacrolimus and cyclosporine following renal transplantation.

Author information

University of California San Francisco Kidney Transplant Service, 505 Parnassus, Box 0116, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.


Increased risk of cardiovascular disease contributes significantly to the higher rate of mortality seen in kidney transplant patients compared to the general population. New-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, as well as being associated with significantly increased graft loss and higher health care costs compared to the nondiabetic transplant population. Evidence from large-scale analyses of registry databases has shown that the calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus, is associated with approximately a 50% increase in the risk of NODM compared to the microemulsion formulation of cyclosporine (CsA); but to date, little robust evidence is available from clinical trials. The DIRECT (Diabetes Incidence after REnal transplantation: Neoral C2 monitoring versus Tacrolimus) study will be the first prospective trial to compare directly the impact of tacrolimus and CsA microemulsion on glucose metabolism in kidney transplant recipients. DIRECT is a 6-month, parallel-group, open-label, randomized trial for which approximately 700 patients will be recruited at around 70 transplant centers worldwide. Patients will be randomized to tacrolimus or CsA microemulsion (using C2 monitoring), with mycophenolate mofetil or enteric-coated mycophenolic acid, steroids, and basiliximab. Primary endpoints are: (a) a composite of NODM or impaired fasting glucose among patients who are nondiabetic at time of transplantation; and (b) combined incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss, or death with CsA microemulsion C2 monitoring compared to tacrolimus trough monitoring . Full results are expected in 2006, with interim results available by the end of 2004, and will be awaited with interest by the transplant community.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center