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Vaccine. 2005 May 9;23(25):3294-300.

Comparison of single versus booster dose of influenza vaccination on humoral and cellular immune responses in older adults.

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Center for Immunotherapy of Cancer and Infectious Diseases, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, 06030-1601, USA.


This study compared the immune response to the standard single-dose (SD) of influenza vaccine to a booster dose (BD) re-vaccination given 16 weeks after the initial dose. While seroprotection rates following vaccination were similar, T-cell responses were more optimally stimulated in the SD versus the BD group. SD lead to a greater than 10-fold decline in ex vivo interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels (P < .0001) and a corresponding significant increase in the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) to IL-10 ratio. Although BD had no further effect on IL-10 production, the IFN-gamma:IL-10 ratio declined in the BD group (P < .001, A/H3N2 and B strains). In the SD group only, IFN-gamma:IL-10 ratios significantly correlated with serum antibody titers (R = .37 - .50, P < or = .01) and ex vivo granzyme B (Grz B) levels (R = .50-.65, P < or = .001). Following vaccination, granzyme B levels were significantly higher in the SD compared to the BD group (P < or= .0002). These results suggest that SD influenza vaccine produces Th1 and CTL responses while BD may produce a Th2 response that poorly stimulates the CTL response.

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