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Springer Semin Immunopathol. 2005 Jun;27(1):119-27. Epub 2005 Apr 16.

Cellular immunotherapy: antigen recognition is just the beginning.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5124, USA.


Advances in molecular and cellular biology have illustrated both the flexibility and complexity involved in host immune responses. Understanding this response is vital to the further development of therapeutic strategies that involve manipulation of the cellular immune response to target tumors. Mobilized, tumor antigen-specific T cells, the core for most immunotherapeutic strategies, are highly regulated, and capable of a wide spectrum of functional responses. Due to differences in murine and human immunity, broad-scale immune monitoring, particularly high-throughput ex vivo analysis of human immune responses, promises to determine what comprises an effective immunotherapy. Such understanding will lead to more sophisticated clinical trials, earlier determination of efficacy and individualized protocols.

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