Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Dev Psychobiol. 2005 May;46(4):331-9.

Social withdrawal behaviors in nonhuman primates and changes in neuroendocrine and monoamine concentrations during a separation paradigm.

Author information

Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Erratum in

  • Dev Psychobiol. 2005 Sep;47(2):196-7.


This study investigated relationships between withdrawal behaviors in rhesus macaques and changes in monoamine metabolite and endocrine concentrations during repeated psychosocial stress. Rhesus monkeys (N = 71) experienced maternal separation in which four separations took place during four consecutive weeks. Behavioral observations were made, as well as plasma concentrations of cortisol and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of the serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine metabolites were obtained. Animals were assigned to high, moderate, and low withdrawal groups, defined using baseline durations of withdrawal behaviors. Highly withdrawn animals showed less reduction than nonwithdrawn animals in serotonin metabolite concentrations over repeated separations. Highly withdrawn macaques also failed to significantly reduce cortisol concentrations across separation weeks. More adaptation in central serotonin functioning and cortisol concentrations was seen in nonwithdrawn primates than in highly withdrawn primates; these findings have implications for increased risk of developing anxiety disorders in highly inhibited children.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley
    Loading ...
    Support Center