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J Biomech. 1992 Apr;25(4):347-57.

Three-dimensional kinematics of the human knee during walking.

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School of Human Biology, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.


Three-dimensional kinematics of the tibiofemoral joint were studied during normal walking. Target markers were fixed to tibia and femur by means of intra-cortical traction pins. Radiographs of the lower limb were obtained to compute the position of the target markers relative to internal anatomical structures. High-speed cine cameras were used to measure three-dimensional coordinates of the target markers in five subjects walking at a speed of 1.2 m s-1. Relative motion between tibia and femur was resolved according to a joint coordinate system (JCS). The measurements have identified that substantial angular and linear motions occur about and along each of the JCS axes during walking. The results do not, however, support the traditional view that the so-called 'screw home' mechanism of the knee joint operates during gait.

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