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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Apr;1039:54-67.

Vestibular responses to sound.

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Neurology Department, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW-2050, Sydney, Australia.


Research into vestibular responses to sound has evolved in four stages. The first, largely the work of Tullio in the 1920s, involved inspection of the eye, head, and postural responses to sound of alert animals with surgical fenestrae into various parts of the bony labyrinth. The second, begun in 1964 by Bickford and his group and continued by our group and then by others in the last 10 years, involves the measurement of evoked myogenic potentials to air-conducted and bone-conducted clicks and tones in normal humans. The third, begun by Mikaelian at about the same time as Bickford and continued by McCue, our group, and others, involves electrophysiological recordings of primary vestibular afferent neuron responses to sound in anesthetized animals. The fourth involves measurements of vestibulo-ocular responses to sound in humans with the Tullio phenomenon. It was begun by Minor and his group in 1998 with the observation that sound-induced nystagmus in humans, the Tullio phenomenon, aligned with the rotation axis of the superior semicircular canal. They then showed a defect in the temporal bone between the apex of the superior semicircular canal and the middle cranial fossa, which was the cause of most, if not all, cases of sound-induced nystagmus. Here some of the key observations made in each of these four stages are reviewed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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