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Clin Infect Dis. 2005 May 1;40(9):1258-62. Epub 2005 Mar 11.

Frequency of interleukin-4 (IL-4) -589 gene polymorphism and vaginal concentrations of IL-4, nitric oxide, and mannose-binding lectin in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Author information

1
Division of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A C-->T substitution at position -589 in the interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene is associated with increased production of IL-4. Associations between this polymorphism and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), as well as vaginal concentrations of IL-4 and the anticandidal compounds nitric oxide (NO) and mannose binding lectin (MBL), were evaluated.

METHODS:

Vaginal samples obtained by lavage from 42 women with RVVC during the acute stage of the disease and 43 control samples were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IL-4 and NO metabolites. The -589 IL-4 gene polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction and endonuclease digestion. Data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Spearman rank correlation. P < .05 was considered significant.

RESULTS:

Candida albicans was identified in 38 patients with RVVC; 3 others had infection due to Candida tropicalis, and 1 had infection due to Candida krusei. The IL-4 T,T genotype was detected in 59.5% of patients with RVVC and in 7.0% of control subjects (P < .0001). The frequency of IL-4*T was 76.2% in patients with RVVC and 23.3% in control subjects (P < .0001). The median concentration of vaginal IL-4 was elevated in patients with RVVC, compared with control subjects (P < .0001). Conversely, vaginal concentrations of NO metabolites (P = .02) and MBL (P < .0001) were reduced in patients with RVVC. There was a positive association between IL-4*T homozygosity and vaginal IL-4 levels (P < .0001) and negative associations between this genotype and vaginal NO (P = .01) and MBL (P < .0001) concentrations.

CONCLUSIONS:

Reduced vaginal levels of anticandidal factors in IL-4*T homozygotes may increase susceptibility to RVVC.

PMID:
15825027
DOI:
10.1086/429246
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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