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Vision Res. 2005 Jul;45(15):1975-89.

Integrating visual cues for motor control: a matter of time.

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Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, 274 Meliora Hall, Box 270270, Rochester, NY 14627-0270, USA.


The visual system continuously integrates multiple sensory cues to help plan and control everyday motor tasks. We quantified how subjects integrated monocular cues (contour and texture) and binocular cues (disparity and vergence) about 3D surface orientation throughout an object placement task and found that binocular cues contributed more to online control than planning. A temporal analysis of corrective responses to stimulus perturbations revealed that the visuomotor system processes binocular cues faster than monocular cues. This suggests that binocular cues dominated online control because they were available sooner, thus affecting a larger proportion of the movement. This was consistent with our finding that the relative influence of binocular information was higher for short-duration movements than long-duration movements. A motor control model that optimally integrates cues with different delays accounts for our findings and shows that cue integration for motor control depends in part on the time course of cue processing.

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