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Cell Death Differ. 2005 Aug;12 Suppl 1:991-8.

The thioredoxin system in retroviral infection and apoptosis.

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Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, Japan.


Human thioredoxin (TRX) was first identified in human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-positive T-cell lines and is associated with the pathophysiology of retroviral infections. TRX is a vital component of the thiol-reducing system and regulates various cellular function (redox regulation). Members of the TRX system regulate apoptosis through a wide variety of mechanisms. A family of thioredoxin-dependent peroxidases (peroxiredoxins) protects against apoptosis by scavenging hydrogen peroxide. Thioredoxin 2 is a critical regulator of cytochrome c release and mitochondrial apoptosis; transmembrane thioredoxin-related molecule (TMX) has a protective role in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis. TRX interacts with apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and is a sensor of oxidative stress. Thioredoxin binding protein-2/vitamin D(3) upregulated protein 1 is a growth suppressor and its expression is suppressed in HTLV-I-transformed cells. Studies of these molecules of the TRX system provide novel insights into the apoptosis associated with retroviral diseases.

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