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Microbiology. 2005 Apr;151(Pt 4):1021-32.

The epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP) class of fungal toxins: distribution, mode of action, functions and biosynthesis.

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School of Botany, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia.


Epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs) are toxic secondary metabolites made only by fungi. The best-known ETP is gliotoxin, which appears to be a virulence factor associated with invasive aspergillosis of immunocompromised patients. The toxicity of ETPs is due to the presence of a disulphide bridge, which can inactivate proteins via reaction with thiol groups, and to the generation of reactive oxygen species by redox cycling. With the availability of complete fungal genome sequences and efficient gene-disruption techniques for fungi, approaches are now feasible to delineate biosynthetic pathways for ETPs and to gain insights into the evolution of such gene clusters.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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