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J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Apr;43(4):1752-67.

Species of Phaeoacremonium associated with infections in humans and environmental reservoirs in infected woody plants.

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Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.


To date, three species of Phaeoacremonium have been associated with phaeohyphomycosis. These are P. parasiticum (formerly Phialophora parasitica), P. inflatipes, and P. rubrigenum. Numerous unknown isolates resembling Phaeoacremonium spp. have in recent years been isolated from human patients as well as from woody plants that appear to be the main environmental source of these fungi. Nine new Phaeoacremonium species, of which six were obtained as etiologic agents of human opportunistic infection, are reported. They can be identified based on their cultural and morphological characters, and the identifications are strongly supported in phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the actin, beta-tubulin, and calmodulin genes. A multiple-entry electronic key based on morphological, cultural, and beta-tubulin sequence data was developed to facilitate routine species identification. Reexamination of all isolates of P. inflatipes associated with human disease showed them to be misidentified and to belong to the new taxa described here.

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