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Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005 Mar-Apr;15(2):255-62.

Early age-related maculopathy and risk factors of cardiovascular disease in middle-aged Lithuanian urban population.

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Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithuania.



To assess the prevalence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) in a middle-aged urban population and the relationship between ARM and the main risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD).


The survey according to the WHO MONICA study protocol was carried out in Kaunas city, Lithuania, from 2001 to 2002. A total of 1403 persons aged 35 to 64 years were screened (626 men and 777 women: response rate 62.4%). Ophthalmologic investigation was performed for 1337 respondents (594 men and 743 women). Analysis of the relationship between ARM and risk factors of CVD was performed in case-control subdivision matching for sex, age, and education level.


Early ARM was diagnosed in 7.4% of men and 5.4% of women. Rate of current smoking in case and control groups did not differ in men but in case group of women it was greater than in control group. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) in male case group and mean fasting blood glucose concentration in female case group were higher than in corresponding control groups. Frequency of diastolic hypertension (diastolic blood pressure > or = 90 mmHg) and obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) in male case group was higher than in control group. ARM was not associated with cholesterol and triglyceride levels in men and women.


Early ARM in middle-aged Lithuanian urban population was associated with current smoking in women but not in men; it was associated with diastolic blood pressure and BMI in men and with fasting glucose level in women.

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