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J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2005 Aug;15(4):367-76.

Force, work and power output of lower limb muscles during human maximal-effort countermovement jumping.

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Computational Biomechanics Unit, RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.


The purpose of this study was to simulate human maximal-effort countermovement jumping with a three-dimensional neuromusculoskeletal model. The specific aim was to investigate muscle force, work and power output of major lower limb muscles during the motion. A neuromusculoskeletal model that has nine rigid body segments, 20 degrees of freedom, 32 Hill-type lower limb muscles was developed. The neural activation input signal was represented by a series of step functions with step duration of 0.05 s. The excitation-contraction dynamics of the contractile element, the tissues around the joints to limit the joint range of motion, as well as the foot-ground interaction were implemented. A simulation was started from a standing posture. Optimal pattern of the activation input signal was searched through numerical optimization with a goal of maximizing the height reached by the mass center of body after jumping up. As a result, feasible kinematics, ground reaction force profile and muscle excitation profile were generated. It was found that monoarticular muscles had major contributions of mechanical work and power output, whereas biarticular muscles had minor contributions. Hip adductors, abductors and external rotator muscles were vigorously activated, although their mechanical work and power output was minor because of their limited length change during the motion. Joint flexor muscles such as m. iliopsoas, m. biceps femoris short head and m. tibialis anterior were activated in the beginning of the motion with an effect of facilitating the generation of a countermovement.

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