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Ophthalmology. 2005 Apr;112(4):540-7.

Cardiovascular risk factors for retinal vein occlusion and arteriolar emboli: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities & Cardiovascular Health studies.

Author information

1
Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. ophwty@nus.edu.sg

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the associations of retinal vein occlusion and arteriolar emboli with cardiovascular disease.

DESIGN:

Population-based cross-sectional study.

PARTICIPANTS:

Pooled from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (n = 12,642; mean age, 60 years) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 2824; mean age, 79 years).

METHODS:

Retinal vein occlusion and arteriolar emboli were identified from a single nonmydriatic retinal photograph using a standardized protocol. Photographs were also graded for arteriovenous nicking and focal arteriolar narrowing. All participants had a comprehensive systemic evaluation, including standardized carotid ultrasonography.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Retinal vein occlusion and arteriolar emboli.

RESULTS:

Prevalences of retinal vein occlusion and arteriolar emboli were 0.3% (n = 39 cases) and 0.2% (n = 34 cases), respectively. After adjusting for age, retinal vein occlusion was associated with hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-6.14), systolic blood pressure (BP) (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.40-12.16; highest quartile vs. lowest), diastolic BP (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.07-6.46; highest quartile vs. lowest), carotid artery plaque (OR, 5.62; 95% CI, 2.60-12.16), body mass index (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.23-12.18; highest quartile vs. lowest), plasma fibrinogen (OR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.08-10.02; highest quartile vs. lowest), arteriovenous nicking (OR, 4.09; 95% CI, 2.00-8.36), and focal arteriolar narrowing (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.59-10.29). After adjusting for age, retinal arteriolar emboli were associated with hypertension (OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.44-6.84), systolic BP (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.13-10.65; highest quartile vs. lowest), prevalent coronary heart disease (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.01-5.42), carotid artery plaque (OR, 4.62; 95% CI, 1.85-11.57), plasma lipoprotein (a) (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.20-11.41; highest quartile vs. lowest), plasma fibrinogen (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 0.98-9.76; highest quartile vs. lowest), and current cigarette smoking (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.47-6.47). Approximately a quarter of participants with retinal vein occlusion and arteriolar emboli had evidence of carotid artery plaque as defined from ultrasound.

CONCLUSIONS:

Retinal vein occlusion and retinal arteriolar emboli are associated with carotid artery disease, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk factors.

PMID:
15808241
DOI:
10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.10.039
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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