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Biochemistry. 2005 Apr 12;44(14):5267-84.

Inhibitor and ion binding sites on the gastric H,K-ATPase.

Author information

1
Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, and VAGLAHS, Los Angeles, California 90073, USA. kmunson@ ucla.edu

Abstract

The gastric H,K-ATPase catalyzes electroneutral exchange of H(+) for K(+) as a function of enzyme phosphorylation and dephosphorylation during transition between E(1)/E(1)-P (ion site in) and E(2)-P/E(2) (ion site out) conformations. Here we present homology modeling of the H,K-ATPase in the E(2)-P conformation as a means of predicting the interaction of the enzyme with two known classes of specific inhibitors. All known proton pump inhibitors, PPIs, form a disulfide bond with cysteine 813 that is accessible from the luminal surface. This allows allocation of the binding site to a luminal vestibule adjacent to Cys813 enclosed by part of TM4 and the loop between TM5 and TM6. K(+) competitive imidazo-1,2alpha-pyridines also bind to the luminal surface of the E(2)-P conformation, and their binding excludes PPI reaction. This overlap of the binding sites of the two classes of inhibitors combined with the results of site-directed mutagenesis and cysteine cross-linking allowed preliminary assignment of a docking mode for these reversible compounds in a position close to Glu795 that accounts for the detailed structure/activity relationships known for these compounds. The new E(2)-P model is able to assign a possible mechanism for acid secretion by this P(2)-type ATPase. Several ion binding side chains identified in the sr Ca-ATPase by crystallography are conserved in the Na,K- and H,K-ATPases. Poised in the middle of these, the H,K-ATPase substitutes lysine in place of a serine implicated in K(+) binding in the Na,K-ATPase. Molecular models for hydronium binding to E(1) versus E(2)-P predict outward displacement of the hydronium bound between Asp824, Glu820, and Glu795 by the R-NH(3)(+) of Lys791 during the conformational transition from E(1)P and E(2)P. The site for luminal K(+) binding at low pH is proposed to be between carbonyl oxygens in the nonhelical part of the fourth membrane span and carboxyl oxygens of Glu795 and Glu820. This site of K(+) binding is predicted to destabilize hydrogen bonds between these carboxylates and the -NH(3)(+) group of Lys791, allowing the Lys791 side chain to return to its E(1) position.

PMID:
15807521
DOI:
10.1021/bi047761p
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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