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Nat Rev Immunol. 2005 Apr;5(4):331-42.

High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1): nuclear weapon in the immune arsenal.

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University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Room 411, 300 Technology Drive, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219, USA.


High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), which previously was thought to function only as a nuclear factor that enhances transcription, was recently discovered to be a crucial cytokine that mediates the response to infection, injury and inflammation. These observations have led to the emergence of a new field in immunology that is focused on understanding the mechanisms of HMGB1 release, its biological activities and its pathological effects in sepsis, arthritis, cancer and other diseases. Here, we discuss these features of HMGB1 and summarize recent advances that have led to the preclinical development of therapeutics that modulate HMGB1 release and activity.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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