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J Comp Neurol. 2005 May 9;485(3):218-39.

Architecture and neurocytology of monkey cingulate gyrus.

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Cingulum NeuroSciences Institute, Manlius, New York 13104, USA.


Human functional imaging and neurocytology have produced important revisions to the organization of the cingulate gyrus and demonstrate four structure/function regions: anterior, midcingulate (MCC), posterior (PCC), and retrosplenial. This study evaluates the brain of a rhesus and 11 cynomolgus monkeys with Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry for neuron-specific nuclear binding protein, intermediate neurofilament proteins, and parvalbumin. The MCC region was identified along with its two subdivisions (a24' and p24'). The transition between areas 24 and 23 does not involve a simple increase in the number of neurons in layer IV but includes an increase in neuron density in layer Va of p24', a dysgranular layer IV in area 23d, granular area 23, with a neuron-dense layer Va and area 31. Each area on the dorsal bank of the cingulate gyrus has an extension around the fundus of the cingulate sulcus (f 24c, f 24c', f 24d, f 23c), whereas most cortex on the dorsal bank is composed of frontal motor areas. The PCC is composed of a dysgranular area 23d, area 23c in the caudal cingulate sulcus, a dorsal cingulate gyral area 23a/b, and a ventral area 23a/b. Finally, a dysgranular transition zone includes both area 23d and retrosplenial area 30. The distribution of areas was plotted onto flat maps to show the extent of each and their relationships to the vertical plane at the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, and cingulate sulcus. This major revision of the architectural organization of monkey cingulate cortex provides a new context for connection studies and for devising models of neuron diseases.

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