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Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2005 Apr;12(2):115-25.

Trends in blood lipid levels, blood pressure, alcohol and smoking habits from 1985 to 2002: results from INTERGENE and GOT-MONICA.

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The Cardiovascular Institute, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg bInstitute of Community Medicine (Primary Health Care), The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.



Favourable trends in cardiovascular disease have been observed in Sweden. The aim of this study was to study secular trends in a variety of cardiovascular risk factors.


Total-, low-density (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) serum cholesterol; serum triglycerides; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; self-reported smoking and alcohol consumption were studied in repeated cross-sectional surveys. Data from four population-based samples in Goteborg, Sweden were used-WHO MONICA project 1985, 1990 and 1995, and INTERGENE 2002. A total of 2931 females and 2691 males aged 25-64 consisting of 1021-1624 randomly selected subjects at each survey period participated.


Serum cholesterol levels showed downward trends but the decline in both total- and LDL-cholesterol seems to be levelling off from 1995 and onwards. No significant changes were observed in serum triglyceride, HDL-serum cholesterol or blood pressure levels. The majority of the participants had higher total- and LDL-serum cholesterol levels than currently recommended. Antihypertensive medical treatment increased in women and the oldest men. The prevalence of smoking decreased from 39 to 25% in women and 35 to 20% in men respectively from 1985-2002. In contrast, the prevalence of subjects consuming strong beer and wine, respectively, at least once a week almost doubled from 1990-2002.


Cardiovascular risk factor patterns change continuously and need to be monitored. The favourable trends in LDL-serum cholesterol and smoking in the Goteborg surveys were paralleled by less favourable trends in being overweight and alcohol consumption.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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