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Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Mar;69(3):431-9.

AdpA, a central transcriptional regulator in the A-factor regulatory cascade that leads to morphological development and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces griseus.

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Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan.


A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) is a microbial hormone that triggers aerial mycelium formation and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces griseus. A-factor produced in a growth-dependent manner switches on the transcription of adpA encoding a transcriptional activator by binding to the A-factor receptor protein (ArpA), which has bound the adpA promoter, and dissociating the DNA-bound ArpA from the DNA. AdpA then activates a number of genes with various functions required for morphological development and secondary metabolism, forming an AdpA regulon. AdpA, which contains a ThiJ/PfpI/DJ-1-like dimerization domain at its N-terminal portion and an AraC/XylS-type DNA-binding domain at its C-terminal portion, is a representative of a large subfamily of the AraC/XylS family. AdpA binds various positions with respect to the transcriptional start points of the target genes and recruits RNA polymerase to the specific promoter region, and facilitates the isomerization of the RNA polymerase-DNA complex into an open complex competent for transcriptional initiation. The AdpA-binding consensus sequence is 5'-TGGCSNGWWY-3' (S: G or C; W: A or T; Y: T or C; N: any nucleotide). The DNA-binding specificity of AdpA in conjunction with that of other AraC/XylS family members is also discussed.

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