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J Immunol. 2005 Apr 1;174(7):4345-55.

Molecular circuits of resolution: formation and actions of resolvins and protectins.

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  • 1Center for Experimental Therapeutics and Reperfusion Injury, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Erratum in

  • J Immunol. 2005 May 1;174(9):5884.


The cellular events underlying the resolution of acute inflammation are not known in molecular terms. To identify anti-inflammatory and proresolving circuits, we investigated the temporal and differential changes in self-resolving murine exudates using mass spectrometry-based proteomics and lipidomics. Key resolution components were defined as resolution indices including Psi(max), the maximal neutrophil numbers that are present during the inflammatory response; T(max), the time when Psi(max) occurs; and the resolution interval (R(i)) from T(max) to T(50) when neutrophil numbers reach half Psi(max). The onset of resolution was at approximately 12 h with proteomic analysis showing both haptoglobin and S100A9 levels were maximal and other exudate proteins were dynamically regulated. Eicosanoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids first appeared within 4 h. Interestingly, the docosahexaenoic acid-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediator 10,17S-docosatriene was generated during the R(i). Administration of aspirin-triggered lipoxin A(4) analog, resolvin E1, or 10,17S-docosatriene each either activated and/or accelerated resolution. For example, aspirin-triggered lipoxin A(4) analog reduced Psi(max), resolvin E1 decreased both Psi(max) and T(max), whereas 10,17S-docosatriene reduced Psi(max), T(max), and shortened R(i). Also, aspirin-triggered lipoxin A(4) analog markedly inhibited proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines at 4 h (20-50% inhibition), whereas resolvin E1 and 10,17S-docosatriene's inhibitory actions were maximal at 12 h (30-80% inhibition). Moreover, aspirin-triggered lipoxin A(4) analog evoked release of the antiphlogistic cytokine TGF-beta. These results characterize the first molecular resolution circuits and their major components activated by specific novel lipid mediators (i.e., resolvin E1 and 10,17S-docosatriene) to promote resolution.

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