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Toxicon. 2005 Apr;45(5):595-601.

Further isolation and characterization of grammistins from the skin secretion of the soapfish Grammistes sexlineatus.

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Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Konan-4, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan.


Soapfishes contain peptide toxins (grammistins) in the skin secretion. Two grammistins (Gs 1 and Gs 2) and six grammistins (Pp 1, Pp 2a, Pp 2b, Pp 3, Pp 4a and Pp 4b) have already been isolated from Grammistes sexlineatus and Pogonoperca punctata, respectively. In this study, five grammistins (Gs A-E), together with grammistins Gs 1 and Gs 2, were further isolated from G. sexlineatus by gel filtration and reverse-phase HPLC. Sequence analyses revealed that grammistins Gs A (28 residues) and Gs C (26 residues) are analogous to grammistin Pp 3 and grammistin Gs B (12 residues) to grammistin Pp 1, while grammistins Gs D (13 residues) and Gs E (13 residues) are identical with grammistins Pp 1 and Pp 2b, respectively. Grammistins Gs A-C exhibited antibacterial activity with a broad spectrum against nine species of bacteria in common with the other grammistins but had no hemolytic activity differing from the other grammistins. Grammistins Gs A-E, Gs 1 and Gs 2 could release carboxyfluorescein entrapped within liposomes made of either phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylglycerol/phosphatidylcholine (3:1), demonstrating their membrane-lytic activity. However, no clear relationship between the membrane-lytic activity and the biological activity of grammistins was recognized.

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