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J Hypertens. 2005 Apr;23(4):683-96.

Hypertensive retinopathy: there's more than meets the eye.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Ophthalmology Section, University of Torino, San Vito Hospital, Strada San Vito 34, 10134 Torino, Italy.


Hypertension is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, leading to systemic end-organ damage, including retinopathy. However, the recent European Society of Hypertension-European Society of Cardiology and World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension 2003 guidelines propose new prognostic indications for the classification of hypertensive retinopathy. In particular, grades I and II are no longer included among signs of end-organ damage, and only grades III and IV are retained as associated clinical conditions for the stratification of global cardiovascular risk. This review article will focus on the wider implications of clinical markers of microvascular damage in the retina, with specific reference to hypertension and end-organ damage. Early recognition of retinal changes remains an important step in the risk stratification of hypertensive patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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