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Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Mar;72(3):311-9.

Simple clinical manifestations of genital Schistosoma haematobium infection in rural Zimbabwean women.

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Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.


Up to 75% of women with urinary schistosomiasis have Schistosoma haematobium ova in the genitals. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of gynecologic S. haematobium infection and to differentiate the disease from sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Gynecologic and laboratory investigations for S. haematobium and STIs were performed in 527 women between the ages of 20 and 49 in rural Zimbabwe. Genital homogenous yellow and/or grainy sandy patches, the commonest type of genital pathology, were identified in 243 (46%) women. Grainy sandy patches were significantly associated with S. haematobium ova only. Genital S. haematobium ova was also significantly associated with homogenous yellow sandy patches, mucosal bleeding, and abnormal blood vessels. The presence of ova was not a predictor for ulcers, papillomata, leukoplakia, polyps, or cell atypia. Mucosal sandy patches seem to be pathognomonic for S. haematobium infection in the female genitals. Coexistence of ova and other lesions may not be causal.

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