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Curr Opin Immunol. 2005 Apr;17(2):187-94.

Breaking tolerance in cancer immunotherapy: time to ACT.

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Department of Melanoma Medical Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Box 904, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.


The discovery of defined tumor antigens and their application in therapeutic cancer vaccines has not yet resulted in a successful therapy for cancer patients. Recent data suggest that this might be because most current clinical immunotherapeutic strategies rely on a tolerized tumor-reactive T-cell repertoire, resulting in a weak T-cell response that cannot induce tumor regression in the face of a multitude of normal and tumor-induced immunoregulatory mechanisms. New insights from animal models and clinical trials suggest a rationale for combination approaches in which the ineffective endogenous anti-tumor immune response is enhanced through a combination of adoptive cell transfer (ACT), specific vaccination and cytokine help for the reliable induction of a robust anti-tumor immune response and tumor regression.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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